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Building stability and consistency through skill development.

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TWI: The Missing Link in Lean

What is TWI?

The Training Within Industry (TWI) programs were developed by some of the most renowned training and management experts in the United States, and were rigorously tested in the field before being released to the public. When the TWI programs were introduced to Japan in the early 1950s, many Japanese companies enthusiastically adopted them and their underlying principles. Toyota was one such company.

The TWI programs are a critical component of Lean methodology, with the goal of developing a more skilled workforce, improving labor and management relations, enhancing productivity, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement. The TWI programs are the foundation of the Toyota Production System that we know today.

At the heart of the TWI programs are three "J" or "Jobs" programs: Job Instruction (JI), Job Methods (JM), and Job Relations (JR). These programs focus on instructing individuals on the best methods for performing their jobs, continuous improvement, and enhancing communication and leadership skills.

TWI: A 3-legged Stool (JI, JM and JR).

The Five Needs Model

TWI Training: The Five Needs Model for Supervisors
Key Role of Supervisors 

Supervisors play a crucial role in any organization as they are responsible for overseeing the work of others and ensuring that the work is completed efficiently and effectively. To fulfil their responsibilities, supervisors must have a deep understanding of their job, responsibilities, and possess various skills.


The Training Within Industry (TWI) program provides a framework for supervisors to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to be successful on the job.


The Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors is a fundamental concept in the TWI program, which outlines the five needs that must be satisfied for supervisors to be effective in their roles. The first two needs in the Five Needs Model focus on acquiring knowledge, while the last three emphasize the development of skills.


Knowledge is obtained through reading or attending classes, while skills are learned through practice and repetition. To effectively apply the TWI program, acquiring knowledge about it must be accompanied by developing the necessary skills through practice.

Job Instruction (JI)


The JI training program equips supervisors with the tools and knowledge needed to deliver standardized training, fostering a culture of competence and consistency within the organization. This training includes explaining to frontline staff why their jobs are important; breaking down the job into logical steps and key points, and teaching the correct method of performing the task; confirming that the employees can do the task on their own; and following up to confirm that standard work practices are complied. 

Job Methods (JM) 

The JM program provides management with a technique whereby supervisors could acquire skills in improving methods so that problems are prevented and analytical methods are used to effectively resolve problems. Key to the JM training is teaching supervisors how to make the best use of the people, technology and resources available right now.

Job Relations (JR)


The JR program is a tool to help supervisors acquire leadership skills. This tool recognizes that job relationships are an important component of a supervisor's job and provides instruction about how to address "people" problems, such as morale issues or grievances. While personnel issues may prove an uncomfortable part of a supervisor's duties, not much can get done without the cooperation of people. 

TWI training in Philippines by Operational Excellence Consulting

This slide presentation provides a quick overview of TWI. It explains the TWI training approach, the supervisory needs model and the four-step processes of JI, JM and JR. 

Benefits of TWI

The objective of TWI is to help supervisors develop a well-trained work force that can work more effectively and efficiently.  

The benefits of TWI are:

•  Get more done with less machines and manpower
•  Improve quality, reduce scrap by achieving standard work across workers and shifts
•  Reduce safety incidents
•  Decrease training time, especially for temporary workers
•  Reduce labor hours
•  Reduce grievances
•  Transfer knowledge from a skilled workforce to an unskilled or green workforce

TWI Methodology

TWI programs follow the Four-Step Learning Process developed by Charles Allen as described in the table below.

All TWI programs are designed to be simple, follow a blueprinted procedure, adopt a learn by doing principle and finally achieve the multiplication effect through a training cascade.

Companies that have implemented TWI have reported improvements of 25% and more in increased production, reduced training time, reduced scrap and reduced labor-hours.


Since 2009, Operational Excellence Consulting has helped various companies in the South-East Asian region to develop their TWI capability.  The companies that we have helped include NSG Group (Vietnam), Transitions Optical (Philippines), Aprati Foods (Cambodia) and Wow Education (Singapore). 

TWI Training (JI, JM and JR).

Learn how to apply the TWI Training Programs (JI, JM & JR) to improve workplace productivity, quality and safety.

TWI Job Instruction (JI) Training.

Learn how to instruct employees so they can quickly remember to do a job, correctly, safely and conscientiously.

TWI Job Methods (JM) Training.

Learn how to improve methods for producing greater quantities of good quality products in less time by effective use of current resources.

TWI Job Relations (JR) Training.

Learn how to lead employees so that problems are prevented and analytical methods are used to effectively resolve problems.

Our TWI Workshops Around the Region 

TWI Train-the-Trainer program  (JI, JM & JR) in Singapore.

TWI Train-the-Trainer program

(JI, JM & JR) in Singapore

TWI Job Instruction workshop  in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

TWI Job Instruction workshop

in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR) in Kep, Cambodia.

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR) 

in Kep, Cambodia

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR)   in Manila, Philippines.

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR) 

in Manila, Philippines

TWI Job Instruction workshop in Singapore.

TWI Job Instruction workshop in Singapore


"After your lecture, we appointed some of them to Leaders. They worked well and organized other workers well. And this area's performance not only productivity but also safety, is better than I expected."


Plant Director,

NSG Group

Get started with TWI Training

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