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The Five Needs Model: A Path to Effective Supervision and Leadership

Allan Ung

The 5 Needs Model

"The development of people is the highest

calling of leadership."


Shigeo Shingo



Introduction


Supervisors play a crucial role in any organization as they are responsible for overseeing the work of others and ensuring that the work is completed efficiently and effectively. To fulfill their responsibilities, supervisors must have a deep understanding of their job, responsibilities, and possess various skills. The Training Within Industry (TWI) program provides a framework for supervisors to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to be successful on the job. The Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors is a fundamental concept in the TWI program, which outlines the five needs that must be satisfied for supervisors to be effective in their roles.



The Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors


The Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors outlines the five needs that must be satisfied before any supervisor can fulfill his or her responsibilities on the job successfully.


Five Needs Model

Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors



The first two needs in the Five Needs Model focus on acquiring knowledge, while the last three emphasize the development of skills. Knowledge is obtained through reading or attending classes, while skills are learned through practice and repetition. To illustrate this important distinction, consider an analogy: If you read a book on how to swim, will you be able to swim? No, you must get in the water and practice repeatedly to actually learn the skill and perform it well. Similarly, to effectively apply the TWI program, acquiring knowledge about it must be accompanied by developing the necessary skills through practice.


The five needs are:


1. Knowledge of the Work


Refers to a deep understanding of the materials, products, services, processes, equipment, and operations that make up the unique characteristics of a business. Supervisors must continuously expand their knowledge of the work to remain effective in their roles.



2. Knowledge of Responsibilities


Refers to the set of policies, regulations, rules, agreements, schedules, and organizational structures that govern the operations of a particular company. Supervisors must have a clear understanding of their authority and responsibilities within the company's management structure to be effective in their roles.



3. Skill in Instructing


Refers to the ability to effectively instruct and communicate information to others. Supervisors with strong instructing skills can reduce the number of defects, rejects, rework, accidents, and tool/equipment damage within their team.


Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Instruction

Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Instruction



The TWI Job Instruction training program teaches supervisors how to instruct frontline staff. This training includes explaining to frontline staff why their jobs are important; breaking down the job into logical steps and key points, and teaching the correct method of performing the task; confirming that the employees can do the task on their own; and following up to confirm that standard work practices are complied with.




4. Skill in Improving Methods


Refers to the ability to analyze each operation and improve processes to optimize the use of resources that are currently available, resulting in greater production of high-quality products and services.


Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Methods

Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Methods



The TWI Job Methods program provides management with a technique whereby supervisors could acquire skills in improving methods so that problems are prevented, and analytical methods are used to effectively resolve problems. Key to the Job Methods training is teaching supervisors how to make the best use of the people, technology, and resources available right now.



5. Skill in Leading


Refers to the ability to work effectively with people, leading them to achieve individual and team goals. Supervisors must develop strong leadership skills to gain necessary cooperation from their team, reduce the occurrence of problems, and improve problem-solving capabilities when challenges arise.


Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Relations

Training Within Industry: The Four Steps of Job Relations



The TWI Job Relations program is a tool to help supervisors acquire leadership skills. This tool recognizes that job relationships are an important component of a supervisor's job and provides instruction about how to address "people" problems, such as morale issues or grievances. Personnel issues may prove an uncomfortable part of a supervisor's duties, but not much can get done without the cooperation of people.



Conclusion


Supervisors play a critical role in any organization, and to be effective in their roles, they must satisfy the Five Needs Model for Good Supervisors. The TWI program provides a framework for supervisors to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to be successful on the job. By developing a deep understanding of the work, responsibilities, and possessing instructing, method-improvement, and leadership skills, supervisors can lead their teams to achieve individual and team goals, resulting in greater production of high-quality products and services.



Allan Ung

Article by Allan Ung, TWI Master Trainer and Principal Consultant at Operational Excellence Consulting, a distinguished management consultancy based in Singapore. Our firm specializes in maximizing customer value and minimizing waste through the strategic adoption of Design Thinking and Lean management practices. For further details, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg



 

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