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Develop a skilled workforce to build stability and consistency.

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TWI: The Missing Link in Lean

What is TWI?

The Training Within Industry (TWI) programs were designed by some of the best training and management experts in the United States and were rigorously field-tested before general release. When the TWI programs were introduced to Japan in the early 1950s, many Japanese companies wholeheartedly adopted them and their fundamental message. Toyota was one of those companies.

TWI programs are an integral part of Lean and aim to deliver a better-skilled workforce, improved labor and management relations, productivity improvements and a focus on continuous improvement. TWI programs form the foundation of the Toyota Production System as we know today.

Central to TWI are three "J" or "Jobs" programs called Job Instruction (JI), Job Methods (JM) and Job Relations (JR). These programs address the processes of instructing people on the best way to perform jobs, continuous improvement, and improved communication and leadership skills.

Job Instruction (JI)


The JI training program teaches supervisors how to instruct the people doing the jobs. This training includes explaining to frontline staff why their jobs are important; breaking down the job into logical steps and key points, and teaching the correct method of performing the task; confirming that the employees can do the task on their own; and following up to confirm that standard work practices are complied. 

Job Methods (JM) 

The JM program provides management with a technique whereby supervisors could acquire skills in improving methods so that problems are prevented and analytical methods are used to effectively resolve problems. Key to the JM training is teaching supervisors how to make the best use of the people, technology and resources available right now.

Job Relations (JR)


The JR program is a tool to help supervisors acquire leadership skills. This tool recognizes that job relationships are an important component of a supervisor's job and provides instruction about how to address "people" problems, such as morale issues or grievances. While personnel issues may prove an uncomfortable part of a supervisor's duties, not much can get done without the cooperation of people. 

TWI training in Philippines by Operational Excellence Consulting

This slide presentation provides a quick overview of TWI. It explains the TWI training approach, the supervisory needs model and the four-step processes of JI, JM and JR. 

Benefits of TWI

The objective of TWI is to help supervisors develop a well-trained work force that can work more effectively and efficiently.  

The benefits of TWI are:

•  Get more done with less machines and manpower
•  Improve quality, reduce scrap by achieving standard work across workers and shifts
•  Reduce safety incidents
•  Decrease training time, especially for temporary workers
•  Reduce labor hours
•  Reduce grievances
•  Transfer knowledge from a skilled workforce to an unskilled or green workforce

TWI Methodology

TWI programs follow the Four-Step Learning Process developed by Charles Allen as described in the table below.

All TWI programs are designed to be simple, follow a blueprinted procedure, adopt a learn by doing principle and finally achieve the multiplication effect through a training cascade.

Companies that have implemented TWI have reported improvements of 25% and more in increased production, reduced training time, reduced scrap and reduced labor-hours.


Since 2009, Operational Excellence Consulting has helped various companies in the South-East Asian region to develop their TWI capability.  The companies that we have helped include NSG Group (Vietnam), Transitions Optical (Philippines), Aprati Foods (Cambodia) and Wow Education (Singapore). 

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Learn how to apply the TWI Training Programs (JI, JM & JR) to improve workplace productivity, quality and safety.


Learn how to instruct employees so they can quickly remember to do a job, correctly, safely and conscientiously.

Learn how to improve methods for producing greater quantities of good quality products in less time by effective use of current resources.

Learn how to lead employees so that problems are prevented and analytical methods are used to effectively resolve problems.

Our TWI Workshops Around the Region 

TWI Train-the-Trainer program

(JI, JM & JR) in Singapore

TWI training in Vietnam by Operational Excellence Consulting

TWI Job Instruction workshop

in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

TWI training in Cambodia by Operational Excellence Consulting

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR) 

in Kep, Cambodia

TWI training in Philippines by Operational Excellence Consulting

TWI workshop (JI, JM & JR) 

in Manila, Philippines

TWI training in Philippines by Operational Excellence Consulting

TWI Job Instruction workshop in Singapore


"After your lecture, we appointed some of them to Leaders. They worked well and organized other workers well. And this area's performance not only productivity but also safety, is better than I expected."


Plant Director,

NSG Group

Get started with TWI Training

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